Hugo Gutmann (1880–1971) was a German-Jewish veteran of World War I who is famously known as Adolf Hitler's superior officer during the war, as well as the man responsible for recommending Hitler for the award of the Iron Cross (First Class) in 1918.
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When the conditions became impossible for wheeled transport, pack mules were used extensively on the Western Front and other theatres such as the Salonika campaign. In this case, shell-carrying pack mules are moving forward through the mud near Ypres on 1 August 1917 to support the Battle of Pilckem Ridge.