Ptolemy (fl. 146-c. 170) composed his Geographia in Alexandria, c. 160. He provided coordinates for 8000 places, tied into a grid of longitudes and latitudes. The transmission of Ptolemy in Europe began with the Latin translation by Jacopo d’Angelo (c.1360-1410) in 1409/10. The maps were revised by Nicolaus Germanus (fl. 1451-1456), a German Benedictine. 0o0
Sawley Map by theologian Honorius Augustodunenesis, 1190. Based on a biblical view of the world, with a mix of classical and Christian sources. The angel at the top left points to Gog and Magog, depicting a Christian world awaiting the Day of Judgement.
MAPPA MUNDI in SALLUSTIO De bello iugurthino. Venezia, fine del sec. XIV, manoscritto, inchiostro e guazza su pergamena, 38 X 28 cm. Venezia, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Fondo Ant. Lat. Z. 432, MS. 1656, fol. 40r. (Barber 2001, p. 60)