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ruins of the library in Ephesus, the rivaled the Egyptian library of Alexandria. The apostle Paul preached in this city. © Doug Nelson

Tomb of the apostle Philip, located amid the remains of a fourth or fifth century church at Hierapolis, one of the most significant Christian sites in Turkey. Philip was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Philip was tested by Jesus about how to feed 5,000 people (John 6:4-7), and he was approached by Greeks who wanted to see Jesus (John 12:20-21).

Until the discovery of the Nag Hammadi codices in 1945, the literary and intellectual diversity of early Christianity had largely been forgotten. The writings of so-called gnostic Christians—vilified since they were declared heretical by church leaders in the fourth century—had been virtually erased from history, their gospels banned and even burned to solidify views of Christian tradition based on canonical writings such as the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.