Rosa McCauley Parks (1913–2005) was an African American civil rights activist whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the "Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement". She is famous for her refusal to relinquish her seat to a white man. She was arrested & tried on charges of disorderly conduct & violating a local ordinance. Found guilty, she appealed & formally challenged the legality of racial segregation. After the boycott, she became an icon & spokesperson of the civil rights movement.