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First oil wells in Europe are drilled 30- to 50-meters deep at Bóbrka, Poland by Ignacy Lukasiewicz.

First oil wells in Europe are drilled 30- to 50-meters deep at Bóbrka, Poland by Ignacy Lukasiewicz.

Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Rozycki, Henryk Zygalski and other cryptoanalysts from BS4, broke into Kriegsmarine code in November 1932. Fully decrypted Enigma texts were read by BS4 since mid January 1933. During Roehm's Putsch in June 1934 Enigma messages were read within minutes from their interception. During two weeks long cryptographic exercises organized at BS4 in January 1938 up to 75 percent of secret German communication was decrypted within hours from interception.

Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Rozycki, Henryk Zygalski and other cryptoanalysts from BS4, broke into Kriegsmarine code in November 1932. Fully decrypted Enigma texts were read by BS4 since mid January 1933. During Roehm's Putsch in June 1934 Enigma messages were read within minutes from their interception. During two weeks long cryptographic exercises organized at BS4 in January 1938 up to 75 percent of secret German communication was decrypted within hours from interception.

The Baku region of Azerbaijan was especially known for gushers, which the Russians called spouters and fountains. In fact, the practice of letting wells flow unchecked was encouraged, as it was realized that when the flow of a spouter was restrained, production went up in competing wells on neighboring leases. Thus, when flow from a spouter dropped, the competition got more oil and the spouter got less. However, when a spouter flooded the countryside in oil and buried it in sand, the owners…

The Baku region of Azerbaijan was especially known for gushers, which the Russians called spouters and fountains. In fact, the practice of letting wells flow unchecked was encouraged, as it was realized that when the flow of a spouter was restrained, production went up in competing wells on neighboring leases. Thus, when flow from a spouter dropped, the competition got more oil and the spouter got less. However, when a spouter flooded the countryside in oil and buried it in sand, the owners…

Korczak Ziolkowski and the story of the Crazy Horse memorial

Korczak Ziolkowski and the story of the Crazy Horse memorial

Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937), was an Italian inventor, known for his pioneering work on long distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".

Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937), was an Italian inventor, known for his pioneering work on long distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".

Shallow pits were dug at the Baku seeps in ancient times to facilitate collecting oil, and hand-dug holes up to 35 meters (115 feet) deep were in use by 1594. These holes were essentially oil wells, which makes Baku the first true field. Apparently 116 of these wells in 1830 produced 3,840 metric tons (about 710 to 720 barrels) of oil.

Shallow pits were dug at the Baku seeps in ancient times to facilitate collecting oil, and hand-dug holes up to 35 meters (115 feet) deep were in use by 1594. These holes were essentially oil wells, which makes Baku the first true field. Apparently 116 of these wells in 1830 produced 3,840 metric tons (about 710 to 720 barrels) of oil.

Jerzy Kukuczka (24 March 1948 – 24 October 1989), born in Katowice, Poland, On 18 September 1987, he became the second man, after Reinhold Messner, to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders in the world. He was also the first man to climb three of the fourteen in winter. Kukuczka died attempting to climb the unclimbed South Face of Lhotse in Nepal on 24 October 1989. Leading a pitch at an altitude of about 8,200 meters on a 6 mm secondhand rope he had picked up in a market in Kathmandu.

Jerzy Kukuczka (24 March 1948 – 24 October 1989), born in Katowice, Poland, On 18 September 1987, he became the second man, after Reinhold Messner, to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders in the world. He was also the first man to climb three of the fourteen in winter. Kukuczka died attempting to climb the unclimbed South Face of Lhotse in Nepal on 24 October 1989. Leading a pitch at an altitude of about 8,200 meters on a 6 mm secondhand rope he had picked up in a market in Kathmandu.

A soldier gets to grips with Wojtek.  Photo courtesy of The Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum

A soldier gets to grips with Wojtek. Photo courtesy of The Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum

Alfred Nobel, Swedish inventor of dynamite, founder of the Nobel Prizes, born October 21, 1833.

Alfred Nobel, Swedish inventor of dynamite, founder of the Nobel Prizes, born October 21, 1833.

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