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Naiche & his wife Ha-o-zinne. - In 1880, Naiche traveled to Mexico with Geronimo's band, to avoid forced relocation to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona. They surrendered in 1883 but escaped the reservation in 1885, back into Mexico. They were captured in 1886, and Naiche and others were imprisoned in Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida.

Geronimo was born of the Bedonkohe Apache tribe in No-doyohn Canon, Arizona, June, 1829, near present day Clifton, Arizona. The fourth in a family of four boys and four girls, he was called Goyathlay (One Who Yawns.) In 1846, when he was seventeen, he was admitted to the Council of the Warriors, which allowed him to marry. Soon, he received permission; married a woman named Alope, and the couple had three children.

Violet-crowned Hummingbird - This is a wonderful website, with state specific information. Be sure and check out the Nifty Fifty for your state. Great info on attracting, identification, and bird types for your area.

Geronimo (June 1829 – February 17, 1909) was a prominent leader of the Bedonkohe Apache who fought against Mexico and Arizona for their expansion into Apache tribal lands. "Geronimo" was the name given to him during a battle with Mexican soldiers. ~ Quanah Parker (1845 or 1852 – February 23, 1911) was from the Comanche band Quahadi, and emerged as a dominant figure, particularly after the Comanches' final defeat. He was one of the last Comanche chiefs.


Edward Sheriff Curtis: One man's obsessive pursuit of the lost tribes of America

Alchise, 1853-1928, Chief White Mountain Apache (Western Apache). Indian Scout (Sergeant). Medal of Honor. Acted as an envoy from Crook to Geronimo, trying to convince him to surrender peacefully. Remained friend with Geronimo until his death. Counselor to Indian Agents. After the wars he became a successful farmer in Arizona. As leader, sought better conditions for his people. Would have been part of one of the last generations of wild Indians.