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Sextant - Hemispherium Antique Scientific Instrument

Astrolabe, magnificent computer of the Ancients—an instrument used to make astronomical measurements, before the development of the sextant

A sextant is a navigational instrument used to typically on ships (mostly before the invention of GPS) by sighting the sun at noon and noting its angle. By comparing the angle at noon with various tables, navigators could discern their location along a particular latitude. It was invented by Sir Isaac Newton in the early 1700s and refined by many others and is still used, virtually unchanged, today. Other instruments used include a chronometer to note time vs. Greenwich, England and a…

The backstaff is a navigational instrument that was used to measure the altitude of a celestial body, in particular the sun or moon. When observing the sun, users kept the sun to their back (hence the name) and observed the shadow cast by the upper vane on a horizon vane.

The Nocturnal was a navigational instrument used on ships to observe certain stars relative to the pole star in Ursa Minor, enabling the navigator to discover the hour at night.