Wittgenstein argued that our entire conceptual framework, the very way we think, is defined by the form of life to which we belong. Words, and their content, take meaning from that. Many forms of life may have 'family resemblances' (points of similarity) but can often result in 'language games', or, conflicts in understanding.
Berkeley’s Idealism stated that only two things exist: the mind, and that which the mind perceives What others (philosophers) called ‘matter’ was, for him, identical to our idea. Objects exist insofar as they can be perceived.
#Marx had argued that the boom and bust of Capitalism would eventually self-destruct and would lead to socialism. In response, #keynesian economics maintains that a state should engineer greater public spending through investment. When trade is booming, a government should spend little, when the economy slumps, public spending should go up. #capitalism #keynes #economy #socialism #investment
Chomsky’s linguistic innatism can be seem as a modern revival of Rationalism’s Innate Ideas. A young child’s mind, less developed than some higher primates, is yet capable of learning a variety and multitude of complicated grammatical structures and languages.
Ayer's Verification Principle states that something can only be meaningful if and only if it is either empirically verifiable or it is an analytic truth. It could be seen as a modern continuation of Hume's fork.
Freud argued that our psyche could be categorised into three: The Ego: our rational concious voice. The Id: our primitive animalistic desires. The Superego: our ‘moral judge’ or censor of what’s demanded of us. All of life’s problems, including religion (for Freud) came when one or many of these would conflict.
Feuerbach believed that organised religion had merely created an idol out of an idealised form of man. We had anthropomorphised God into being everything we wanted to be. Once we realised this, Feuerbach thought we would do away with the more superstitious elements and embraced a humanism he called "Realized Christianity".