Wittgenstein argued that our entire conceptual framework, the very way we think, is defined by the form of life to which we belong. Words, and their content, take meaning from that. Many forms of life may have 'family resemblances' (points of similarity) but can often result in 'language games', or, conflicts in understanding.
Chomsky’s linguistic innatism can be seem as a modern revival of Rationalism’s Innate Ideas. A young child’s mind, less developed than some higher primates, is yet capable of learning a variety and multitude of complicated grammatical structures and languages.
The first significant Western philosopher is generally considered to be Thales of Miletus (624-546 BC). According to the likes of Aristotle, and later the great Bertrand Russell, Thales was the first man who attempted to give a logical explanation to the origin of the world, instead of a mythological one. He was also one of the Seven Sages of Greece and sometimes called “the first Greek mathematician.”
#Marx had argued that the boom and bust of Capitalism would eventually self-destruct and would lead to socialism. In response, #keynesian economics maintains that a state should engineer greater public spending through investment. When trade is booming, a government should spend little, when the economy slumps, public spending should go up. #capitalism #keynes #economy #socialism #investment
Berkeley’s Idealism stated that only two things exist: the mind, and that which the mind perceives What others (philosophers) called ‘matter’ was, for him, identical to our idea. Objects exist insofar as they can be perceived.
Feuerbach believed that organised religion had merely created an idol out of an idealised form of man. We had anthropomorphised God into being everything we wanted to be. Once we realised this, Feuerbach thought we would do away with the more superstitious elements and embraced a humanism he called "Realized Christianity".
Freud argued that our psyche could be categorised into three: The Ego: our rational concious voice. The Id: our primitive animalistic desires. The Superego: our ‘moral judge’ or censor of what’s demanded of us. All of life’s problems, including religion (for Freud) came when one or many of these would conflict.
The Pythagorean cult remains mysterious, but amongst other beliefs, they thought numbers and geometric shapes were somehow windows to a higher existence. The Tetractys became an object of worship since the number 10 is the perfect in being made up of the sum of the first four integers, as shown in the shape.
Alan #Turing asked: can machines think? His answer lay in how we define 'think'. If we provide a list of criteria for 'thinking', then the 'Turing Test' argues that if something (like a machine or #robot) meets this criteria, then it must also have thoughts (and appear indistinguishable from other 'thinking things' like persons).