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Wittgenstein argued that our entire conceptual framework, the very way we think, is defined by the form of life to which we belong. Words, and their content, take meaning from that. Many forms of life may have 'family resemblances' (points of similarity)  but can often result in 'language games', or, conflicts in understanding.

Wittgenstein argued that our entire conceptual framework, the very way we think, is defined by the form of life to which we belong. Words, and their content, take meaning from that. Many forms of life may have 'family resemblances' (points of similarity) but can often result in 'language games', or, conflicts in understanding.

E aqueles que foram vistos dançando, foram julgados insanos por aqueles que não podiam escutar a música! #filosofia #nietszche

E aqueles que foram vistos dançando, foram julgados insanos por aqueles que não podiam escutar a música! #filosofia #nietszche

The first significant Western philosopher is generally considered to be Thales of Miletus (624-546 BC). According to the likes of Aristotle, and later the great Bertrand Russell, Thales was the first man who attempted to give a logical explanation to the origin of the world, instead of a mythological one. He was also one of the Seven Sages of Greece and sometimes called “the first Greek mathematician.”

The first significant Western philosopher is generally considered to be Thales of Miletus (624-546 BC). According to the likes of Aristotle, and later the great Bertrand Russell, Thales was the first man who attempted to give a logical explanation to the origin of the world, instead of a mythological one. He was also one of the Seven Sages of Greece and sometimes called “the first Greek mathematician.”

John Locke, Some Thoughts Concerning Education, Virtue is harder to be got than Knowledge

John Locke, Some Thoughts Concerning Education, Virtue is harder to be got than Knowledge

#Hobbes thought that man, free of all #authority, would resort to a 'state of nature': a bitter struggle for resources, resulting in a 'short nasty and brutish' existence. To avoid this bleak state, we must surrender absolute personal autonomy to give authority to a sovereign government. The Social Contact is therefore formed between society and the #sovereign: a compromise of #liberty on one hand #security and #comfort on the other.

#Hobbes thought that man, free of all #authority, would resort to a 'state of nature': a bitter struggle for resources, resulting in a 'short nasty and brutish' existence. To avoid this bleak state, we must surrender absolute personal autonomy to give authority to a sovereign government. The Social Contact is therefore formed between society and the #sovereign: a compromise of #liberty on one hand #security and #comfort on the other.

Alan #Turing asked: can machines think? His answer lay in how we define 'think'. If we provide a list of criteria for 'thinking', then the 'Turing Test' argues that if something (like a machine or #robot) meets this criteria, then it must also have thoughts (and appear indistinguishable from other 'thinking things' like persons).

Alan #Turing asked: can machines think? His answer lay in how we define 'think'. If we provide a list of criteria for 'thinking', then the 'Turing Test' argues that if something (like a machine or #robot) meets this criteria, then it must also have thoughts (and appear indistinguishable from other 'thinking things' like persons).

The Pythagorean cult remains mysterious, but amongst other beliefs, they thought numbers and geometric shapes were somehow windows to a higher existence. The Tetractys became an object of worship since the number 10 is the perfect in being made up of the sum of the first four integers, as shown in the shape.

The Pythagorean cult remains mysterious, but amongst other beliefs, they thought numbers and geometric shapes were somehow windows to a higher existence. The Tetractys became an object of worship since the number 10 is the perfect in being made up of the sum of the first four integers, as shown in the shape.

Berkeley’s Idealism stated that only two things exist: the mind, and that which the mind perceives  What others (philosophers) called ‘matter’ was, for him, identical to our idea. Objects exist insofar as they can be perceived.

Berkeley’s Idealism stated that only two things exist: the mind, and that which the mind perceives What others (philosophers) called ‘matter’ was, for him, identical to our idea. Objects exist insofar as they can be perceived.

No one person is entirely responsibly for what we today call formal (or predicate) logic, but perhaps closest comes #Frege. Frege's new logical language was designed, in part, to resolve certain paradoxes in #philosophy by including #quantifiers (which defined the numbers of something).  Despite being groundbreaking, it was not until the better-known, and better liked, Bertrand #Russell wrote extensively about (and therefore promoted) Frege, that it ignited the philosophical world.

No one person is entirely responsibly for what we today call formal (or predicate) logic, but perhaps closest comes #Frege. Frege's new logical language was designed, in part, to resolve certain paradoxes in #philosophy by including #quantifiers (which defined the numbers of something). Despite being groundbreaking, it was not until the better-known, and better liked, Bertrand #Russell wrote extensively about (and therefore promoted) Frege, that it ignited the philosophical world.

#Gaunilo's Perfect Island is a reductio ad absurdum objection to St. #Anselm’s #Ontological Argument. Gaunilo suggested that if perfection necessarily entailed existence (How Anselm argued a ‘perfect God’ must exist) the same logic could be applied to any ‘perfect’ object - including an island.  #philosophy #god #proofsforgod #logic

#Gaunilo's Perfect Island is a reductio ad absurdum objection to St. #Anselm’s #Ontological Argument. Gaunilo suggested that if perfection necessarily entailed existence (How Anselm argued a ‘perfect God’ must exist) the same logic could be applied to any ‘perfect’ object - including an island. #philosophy #god #proofsforgod #logic

Kierkegaard, a forefather of existentialism, believed man lived and passed through 'spheres of existence', each more meaningful than the last: the Aesthetic (life of pleasures), the Universal (life in society) and the highest Religious. To reach the last, we must suspend reason, and embrace the passion of faith.

Kierkegaard, a forefather of existentialism, believed man lived and passed through 'spheres of existence', each more meaningful than the last: the Aesthetic (life of pleasures), the Universal (life in society) and the highest Religious. To reach the last, we must suspend reason, and embrace the passion of faith.

Aristotle's Law on Contradiction applies not only to truth claims but also to what we believe and assert. The law simply states that you cannot both think something and not think it at the same time. For example, we cannot simultaneously believe the world is flat and not flat (without some semantic trickery). It is a law broken in the Orwellian world of 'double think' (coined in his 1984). George Orwell

Aristotle's Law on Contradiction applies not only to truth claims but also to what we believe and assert. The law simply states that you cannot both think something and not think it at the same time. For example, we cannot simultaneously believe the world is flat and not flat (without some semantic trickery). It is a law broken in the Orwellian world of 'double think' (coined in his 1984). George Orwell

Feuerbach believed that organised religion had merely created an idol out of an idealised form of man. We had anthropomorphised God into being everything we wanted to be. Once we realised this, Feuerbach thought we would do away with the more superstitious elements and embraced a humanism he called "Realized Christianity".

Feuerbach believed that organised religion had merely created an idol out of an idealised form of man. We had anthropomorphised God into being everything we wanted to be. Once we realised this, Feuerbach thought we would do away with the more superstitious elements and embraced a humanism he called "Realized Christianity".

Chomsky’s linguistic innatism can be seem as a modern revival of Rationalism’s Innate Ideas. A young child’s mind, less developed than some higher primates, is yet capable of learning a variety and multitude of complicated grammatical structures and languages.

Chomsky’s linguistic innatism can be seem as a modern revival of Rationalism’s Innate Ideas. A young child’s mind, less developed than some higher primates, is yet capable of learning a variety and multitude of complicated grammatical structures and languages.

Freud argued that our psyche could be categorised into three:  The Ego: our rational concious voice.  The Id: our primitive animalistic desires.  The Superego: our ‘moral judge’ or censor of what’s demanded of us.  All of life’s problems, including religion (for Freud) came when one or many of these would conflict.

Freud argued that our psyche could be categorised into three: The Ego: our rational concious voice. The Id: our primitive animalistic desires. The Superego: our ‘moral judge’ or censor of what’s demanded of us. All of life’s problems, including religion (for Freud) came when one or many of these would conflict.

Ayer's Verification Principle states that something can only be meaningful if and only if it is either empirically verifiable or it is an analytic truth. It could be seen as a modern continuation of Hume's fork.

Ayer's Verification Principle states that something can only be meaningful if and only if it is either empirically verifiable or it is an analytic truth. It could be seen as a modern continuation of Hume's fork.