Graphite structure with correlated graphine layers has high 3-D crystalline order. A 2-D honeycomb structure of uncorrelated graphene layers is called turbostratic carbon. There is no interlayer site correlation between adjacent graphene planes.
Turbostratic carbons feature planes of atoms arranged at different angles and with lots of defects at the edges that make the atoms more accessible for chemical reactions. Graphite, in contrast, has a more ordered structure and is less reactive by a factor of about 1,000.
A commercial fisherman, organic farmer and inventor, John Miedema first came across biochar about five years ago when he was researching better ways to clean up effluent from a dairy manure digester. Miedema grew up around dairy farms and he remembers how the manure cesspools would foul the streams. He wanted to do things differently and he figured charcoal would work well as a filter and perhaps also serve as a substrate for beneficial microbes that would help retain nutrients.
Schematic diagrams exhibiting (a) a 3-D graphite lattice (b) a turbostratic structure, and (c) a schematic structural model of the outer two layers for a multiwall carbon nanotube. The electronic structure of turbostratic graphite, a zero-gap semiconductor, is qualitatively different from that of ideal graphite, a semimetal. Crystalline disorder and interlayer spacing introduces an effective energy gap.