Graphite structure with correlated graphine layers has high 3-D crystalline order. A 2-D honeycomb structure of uncorrelated graphene layers is called turbostratic carbon. There is no interlayer site correlation between adjacent graphene planes.
Turbostratic carbons feature planes of atoms arranged at different angles and with lots of defects at the edges that make the atoms more accessible for chemical reactions. Graphite, in contrast, has a more ordered structure and is less reactive by a factor of about 1,000.
he carbon in biochar resists degradation and can hold carbon in soils for hundreds to thousands of years. Biochar is produced through pyrolysis or gasification — processes that heat biomass in the absence (or under reduction) of oxygen. In addition to creating a soil enhancer, sustainable biochar practices can produce oil and gas byproducts that can be used as fuel, providing clean, renewable energy.