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Explore Turbostratic Carbon, Crystalline Order and more!

Graphite structure with correlated graphine layers has high 3-D crystalline order. A 2-D honeycomb structure of uncorrelated graphene layers is called turbostratic carbon. There is no interlayer site correlation between adjacent graphene planes.

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In single crystal graphite (top), the carbon atoms are bonded in hexagonal arrays that are stacked in ordered layers. Turbostratic carbon (bottom), however, has disordered stacking through random rotation or displacement of ordered layers. This disordered structure is what gives pyrolytic turbostratic carbon its unique mechanical properties.

Turbostratic carbons feature planes of atoms arranged at different angles and with lots of defects at the edges that make the atoms more accessible for chemical reactions. Graphite, in contrast, has a more ordered structure and is less reactive by a factor of about 1,000.

Schematic diagrams exhibiting (a) a 3-D graphite lattice (b) a turbostratic structure, and (c) a schematic structural model of the outer two layers for a multiwall carbon nanotube. The electronic structure of turbostratic graphite, a zero-gap semiconductor, is qualitatively different from that of ideal graphite, a semimetal. Crystalline disorder and interlayer spacing introduces an effective energy gap.

Biochar or composted charcoal is a very good fertiliser and carbon sink, unfortunately it's also an exceptionally effective oxygen sink and should therefore be used only sparingly or in anaerobic environments.

Turbostratic crystallite structure is the more porous intermediate stage between amorphous carbon and graphene sheet formation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License - Original Author: Philip Small. Attribution Party: Land Profile, Inc. URI:

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Forged composite is a revolutionary material we use in the RAZR Fit driver that's both lighter and stronger than titanium. The crown contains over 7 million turbostratic carbon fibers (that are forged together at 290 degrees for for three minutes) which allows our engineers to precisely control thickness, resulting in an optimum center of gravity. How does this help you? It's simple: lighter + stronger = faster clubhead speed = more distance.: