Pope Innocent III, in 1215, changed trial by ordeal to trial by Jury. At first this was hated, as if your neighbour had a grudge against you they could use it as revenge, but then in 1275 it was made a law that you had to do trial by jury, otherwise you could be tortured freely. This document was called the Assize of Clarendon.
Kurt Gerstein (August 11, 1905 – July 25, 1945) was a German SS officer and member of the Institute for Hygiene of the Waffen-SS. He witnessed mass murders in the Nazi extermination camps Belzec and Treblinka. He gave information to the Swedish diplomat Göran von Otter, as well as to members of the Roman Catholic Church with contacts to Pope Pius XII, in an effort to inform the international public about the Holocaust.