Geocolaptes olivaceus (Ground woodpecker) Both sexes excavate the nest, which consists of a 0.5-1.0m long tunnel ending in a circa 15 cm wide egg chamber. It is usually dug into earthen banks, such as riverbanks and gullies, or in crumbling walls of abandoned buildings or termite mounds.
Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris) is found in a wide range of open and semi-open habitats in eastern Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and north-eastern Argentina, with isolated populations in Amapá and southern Suriname. Though it frequently can be seen in trees or bushes, it is among the very few woodpeckers that spends a significant portion of its life on the ground. Photo: James Ownby.