Zenobia; 240–275; Zenobia was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. She led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene Empire following Odaenathus' death in 267. By 269, Zenobia had expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman prefect, Tenagino Probus, who was beheaded after he led an attempt to recapture the territory. She ruled over Egypt until 274, when she was defeated and taken as a hostage to Rome.
Stele from Palmyria in the Roman province of Syria, about 200 CE The Aramaic inscription is, "Alas, Umm'abi, daughter of Maggi, son of Male, son of La'ad". The linear style of carving and the clothing and jewelry reflect local fashions. The sculpture was once painted: the jewely shows traces of red, blue, green, and yellow pigment.