This is a 12 square mosaic made from smalti. Smalti is made in Italy and is a traditional hand-cut mosaic tile that was originally developed for Byzantine mosaics. Smalti is made by mixing molten glass with metal oxides for color in a furnace; the result is a cloudy mixture that is
Basilica of st. Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna. Some columns retain hands of the Arian king Theodoric and his court, the rest having been removed once the Orthodox Trinitarians succeeded in defeating Arianism.