Berlin Map from 1688, from: Historischer Atlas von Berlin in VI Grundrissen nach gleichem Maßstabe von 1415 bis 1800. Gezeichnet von J.M.F. Schmidt. Berlin: Simon Schropp und Kamp 1835. In the 13th century Cölln was the sister town of Old Berlin (Altberlin), located on the southern Spree Island in the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Today the island is located in the historic core of the central Mitte locality of modern Berlin. Its northern peak is known as Museum Island, while the part south of Ger
A frontier stockade - constructed in readily-available wood after the American Revolution. The use of only two bastions... “economical of the number of defenders needed and still provided adequate flanking fire in a small fortification.” G. Turner, “Plan and Elevation of a Stockade Work, with Block-House Bastions; designed for the defence of the Settlement of Coleraine, on the Great Miami River, 1791.”Watercolor, pen and ink. Josiah Harmar Papers. Map Division, Small Maps 1791.
An engineer’s plan of the British Fort Ontario, on Lake Ontario, five years into its construction. Thomas Sowers, “Plan of Fort Ontario, Shewing such Part of the Works as are finished and such as yet remains to be done to compleat the Fort.”Watercolor, pen and ink, 1764. Map Division, M-154. Maps 4-L-16. Clements Library, Brian Dunnigan
King Henry VII (1457-1509) was the first ruler to build dry docks, which he did at Portsmouth. This feat of naval engineering occurred in 1495, and the first ship built there was Sweepstake in 1497. The small town of Gosport, located right at the choke point through which one must sail to get into Fareham Lake, and thus get to Portsmouth. Gosport the focus of a major defensive buildup... the first was Fort Monckton. 1780-1793. 1860, with French navy parity, Palmerston forts begun at Portsmouth.
Henry VIII began fortifying the southern coast of England in 1539 with the latest in fortification technology: The Device Fort. The 1539 Device Programme resulted in the construction of 30 castles and forts along the south of England, ranging in size from relatively simple earthen bulwarks to such concentrically lovely forts as Pendennis Castle, a squat, stoutly-engineered artillery bastion. Falmouth, Cornwall, UK.
The Battle of Culloden, the last major battle to be fought in the UK, had raged on April 16 1746. This battle had quashed the hopes of the House of Stuart to overthrow the House of Hanover in Great Britain. Some 1,000 English soldiers were brought in to both build the new fort and defend it from attack if necessary. Fort George was completed in 1759 at the cost of 200,000 Pounds, over twice its original estimate and more than all of Scotland's GNP at the time. When finished it was not needed.
The refortification of Berwick Castle was the single most costly undertaking during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603), using the latest in the trace italienne style of fortification. Berwick was now ready to defend the kingdom from anything France or Spain might try to throw at it. Berwick was never formally part of Scotland or England until 1707, when the two joined at last. Even after this union, several proclamations referred to "England, Scotland and the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed.
In 1859 Fort Cumberland, Plymouth, UK became the headquarters of the Royal Marine Artillery, and changes were made in 1860-61 to accomodate new, rifled cannon. Changes were also made in the fort's bastions between 1886 and 1892 to make way for Moncrieff Disappearing Guns, a form of artillery designed in the 1860's by Crimean War (1853-1856) veteran Captain Alexander Moncrieff to pop entertainingly from behind cover to fire and then pop back down to be reloaded. Fun!
Charles Fort, named for King Charles II (1630-1685), was built by the British in the 1670's and 1680's atop the remains of Ringcurran Castle, a medieval fortification. Across the mouth of Kinsale Harbor, James' Fort had been built at the beginning of the 1600's atop another fort, Castle Ny-Parke. Ireland. By 1690 King James II (1633-1701) was at war with William of Orange (1650-1702) over the English throne. Charles Fort was besieged by the Duke of Malborough (1650-1722), fighting for Will
Tilbury Fort, London, England. Work on the current fort was begun in 1670. The original blockhouse was retained, and work, often accomplished by pressing labor from nearby towns, continued into the 1680's. Scottish prisoners taken at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 were held at Tilbury Fort. Ten armed hulks were arrayed across the Thames in 1803 in an effort to block a French invasion... antiaircraft guns on the fort's parade ground shot down a Zeppelin airship in WWI.
Royal Citadel, Plymouth, England. England's wars with the Dutch (1664-1667) convinced King Charles II (1630-1685) that the port at Plymouth was vital to his nation's security. Work on the Citadel commenced in 1665, atop an earlier fortification: Fisher's Nose Blockhouse, dating around 1500, was incorporated in the Citadel's southeast corner
Spike Island - Dominated by a star fort, this piece of land has borne witness to great religious communities, raids by the fearsome Vikings, even the Normans could not ignore Spike; they came and they conquered this island. This well placed island was also used for the transportation of convicts right up to and during the great famine.
Fort George is a bastioned'defence built on an isolated promontory jutting in to the Moray Firth, just a short bus ride from Inverness Town Centre. The Fort is one of a chain of fortifications in and around the Great Glen, intended to subjugate the Highlands of Scotland. Surrounded on three sides by water, the Eastern defences were built to resist land attack.