The futhork runic alphabet (so called for the sounds of the first six letters in the alphabet) was in wide use throughout northern Europe from roughly the 3rd to the 12th century. At first, 24 letters were used, but in the 9th century, the futhork alphabet was simplified to 16 letters, beginning in Denmark, then spreading throughout the region. Many variations of the futhork alphabet were used; one of the Danish variants is shown above.
MS in Norwegian on birch wood, Norway, 17th c., 1 septagonal clog with round handle and iron shoe at the end, 4x123 cm, (4x95 cm), 5 long lines in runes from the younger futhark, 46 feastday symbols, including the 2 St. Olav axes, marked S.L. Not normally Norwegian
YOUNGER FUTHARK RUNIC INCANTATION Text | MS 1697 | MS Short Title RUNIC INCANTATION FORMULA: RAM IKA, KLA? IKA, OR R AMIKA AKLA?I KAK Description MS in Old Danish on silver, Denmark, 10th c., 1 strip, 7,8x0,3 cm, (7,1x0,3 cm), 1 long line in fine upright runes of the younger futhark. | Schoyen Collection