Xerxes I of Persia(519–465 BC), was the 4th King of Kings of Persia. In 465 BC, Xerxes was murdered by Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard and the most powerful official in the Persian court. Although Artabanus bore the same name as the famed uncle of Xerxes, a Hyrcanian, his rise to prominence was due to his popularity in religious quarters of the court and harem intrigues. He put his seven sons in key positions and had a plan to dethrone the Achamenids.
Old Persian Cuneiform, part of the Behistun inscription (column 1, lines 1-8) of Darius I (522-486 BC), who was the father of Ahasuereus (Xerxes I) the husband of Esther. Old Persian appears from about 600 BC to 300 BC; Darius I claims to have created the written cuneiform.
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Darius then died whilst preparing to march on Egypt, and the throne of Persia passed to his son Xerxes I. Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, and very quickly restarted the preparations for the invasion of Greece. The epic second Persian invasion of Greece finally began in 480 BC, and the Persians met with initial success at the battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium-Persepolis, Iran