Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. We will meet him from time to time, for example when we think about the need to classify ideas and concepts.
Western philosophy not only started with Plato, but has spent most of its life in his company. There was a period in the Middle Ages when almost all his works were unknown, but before that, and after the rediscovery of his texts (Petrarch in the fourteenth century had a manuscript of Plato), he has been read and has been a point of reference.
#Frankfurt's #compatibilsm states that humans have #freewill insofar as they recognise their own biases, desires, and wants and then 'identify' with them (chooses to act on them). #philosophy #softdeterminism #freewill #addiction
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844–1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, composer, & Latin & Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy & modern intellectual history. The Nietzsche scholar Joachim Köhler has attempted to explain Nietzsche's life history & philosophy by claiming that Nietzsche was homosexual. Köhler argues that Nietzsche's syphilis is likely, it is now held, to have been contracted in a male brothel in Genoa".
Rousseau’s theory of the General Will is framed by his wider Social Contract theory of governance. Here, the individual must deny themselves notions of absolute freedom and ‘rights’ if these are not in accordance with the ‘general will’.Interpreted one way, this has Rousseau simply as arguing for a kind of democracy - where all laws and state actions must be the voice of the majority. However, he is more commonly interpreted as endorsing a tyranny of the majority over minorities. He argues…