A street in the Warsaw ghetto - the biggest ghetto in the Poland, with almost half a million Jews. By the end of 1941 most Polish Jews had been moved into ghettos. The Warsaw ghetto was also used to temporarily imprison Jews deported from other countries on the way to the death camps.
On October 2, 1940, the Warsaw ghetto was formally established. Six weeks later, on November 15, the ghetto was sealed with walls, as shown in this 1941 photograph. "Ghettoization" restricted the rights of Jews, created deplorable living conditions, and clustered Jews into condensed areas facilitating the eventual deportations to extermination camps.
As appalling as conditions were in the Warsaw Ghetto, some of the city's Jews survived, often by hiding outside the ghetto in the homes of gentiles who were willing to conceal them. Here, Jacob, David, and Shalom Gutgeld pose with their Aunt Janke. Janke managed to get the three boys out of the ghetto, hiding them in the small apartment of a couple named the Roslans. Jacob and David survived the Holocaust, but Shalom died of scarlet fever.