ca. 5,000 BCE. Neolithic stone beads from early settlements in Sahara, North Africa. Using simple hand-carved tools, stones were placed on a grooved stone and pecked out from both sides which was difficult, nonetheless, modern means cannot duplicate them. Tubular beads were even more difficult and came later in the Bronze Age in West Asia and the Indus Valley. Holes are generally not smooth nor even. SItes show many beads were broken in the process.
New version of my Earth Mother pentacle. Commissioned piece for Sarah. Willow branches, wire, glass beads, stone beads (jasper, quartzite, unikite), abalone shell beads, metal leaves, pewter Goddess pendant with bronze finish, and pewter spiral beads with bronze finish.