Sir Francis Drake (1540-1596). He earned his fame and fortune through his skilful seamanship and outstandingly successful piracy. His 1577-81 global circumnavigation involved profitable raids on Spanish ships and ports, and increasingly frequent and serious attacks during the 1580s contributed to Philip II's 1588 Armada, in turn defeated by the English fleet. In this full-length portrait Drake's hand is on a globe which, is in reverse, intriguingly, of modern representations of the planet.
One page of this compendium is an equatorial sundial, another is a noctural, another a calendar, another a circumferator, compass, alidade and geometric square. From the different pages it is possible to calculate anything from high and low tides and the phases of the moon to the height of buildings. This dial is reputed to have belonged to Sir Francis Drake though this is unconfirmed, and lacks any supporting evidence. Creator: Humfrey Cole Date: 1569