The Rashidun Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة الراشدية al-khilafat ar-Rāshidīyah), comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death in 632, Year 10 A.H.. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the largest empire in history up until that time. It is also known as the Patriarchal Caliphate.
In 636 CE, Muslim forces led by the Arab Rashidun Caliphs defeated the Eastern Roman/Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmouk, conquering Palestine. Jerusalem fell to Caliph Omar's forces in February 638. The Umayyad Dynasty was inaugurated by Muawiyah I, sole caliph from 661, who made his capital in Damascus. In 750 the Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasid Dynasty of Baghdad and from 878 Palestine was ruled by semi-autonomous governors in Egypt
Domains of Rashidun Caliphate under four caliphs. The divided phase relates to the Rashidun Caliphate of Ali during the First Fitna. Strongholds of the Rashidun Caliphate of Ali during the First Fitna Region under the control of Muawiyah I during the First Fitna Region under the control of Amr ibn al-As during the First Fitna