Port Arthur is a small town and former convict settlement on the Tasman Peninsula, in Tasmania, Australia. Port Arthur is one of Australia's most significant heritage areas and the open air museum is officially Tasmania's top tourist attraction. It is located approximately 60 km south east of the state capital, Hobart. In 1996 it was the scene of the worst mass murder event in post-colonial Australian history.
The Port Arthur massacre occurred during the First Sino-Japanese War from 21 November 1894 for two or three days, when advanced elements of the First Division of the Japanese Second Army under command of the one-eyed General Yamaji Motoharu (1841–1897) killed somewhere between 1,000 to 20,000 Chinese servicemen and civilians, leaving only 36 to bury bodies, in the Chinese coastal city of Port Arthur (now Lüshunkou).