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By the fourth century AD, the predominant race in northern Scotland were the Picts, the name was coined by the Romans who referred to them as 'Picti' meaning 'painted ones', which referred to the Pictish custom of either tattooing their bodies or covering themselves with warpaint.

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Cup and ring marks - Early people - Scotlands History Cup and ring is a form of prehistoric art found widely throughout the world from India to Brazil. The best Scottish examples are at Balnachraig (Kilmartin Glen, Argyll), Beauly (near Inverness), and Dalgarven Mill (near Kilwinning).

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The Hilton of Cadboll stone was carved around AD 800 in northern Scotland, then a heartland of the Picts.

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Caledonii. The Romans called the tribes of the north the ‘Caledones’ or ‘Caledonii’ and named their land ‘Caledonia’. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that the inhabitants of Caledonia had ‘red hair and large limbs’; they were a fierce people that were quick to fight when they first saw the Roman invaders.

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Celtic map. Celts or Kelts were an ethno-linguistic group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had a similar culture, although the relationship between the those elements remains controversial. Today, the term Celtic generally refers to the languages and respective cultures of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man, and Brittany, also known as the Six Celtic Nations. These are the regions where four Celtic languages are still…

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40 maps that explain the Roman Empire

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The Aberlemno Serpent Stone, Carved with the unique symbols of the Picts one of the 2 peoples that dominated Scotland in the Iron age. Images here include the snake, bent spear, roman mirror and the two disc's. Scotland

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Celtic swordsman with body paint and lime-washed hair. It has been suggested that the lime washing was somehow a sacred rite of Epona. Nevertheless, it adds a fearsome aspect to the warrior.

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