The round vent above the stove, with its decorative grate, is a range hood vent. An inline fan inside the wall vents to the exterior, and works as well as an overhead vent would. Doing this on the north wall above the range fo sure!
From This Old House: The distance between the hood and cooktop, where the hood is installed (island or wall), the length of the duct run, and the number of bends can skew this number. Consult with an appliance pro before you buy.
This article shows the best way to vent a hood and exhaust fan that's above the stove when you have an interior wall with cabinets above. We'll cover how to run an insulated duct sleeve through the attic and out the roof to get the best airflow.
A whole kitchen made out of pallets might be a bit much, but building one or two pieces out of reclaimed wood is an awesome way to add contrast. Home Talk posted a lovely kitchen renovation featuring this beautiful reclaimed wood vent hood.