This graphic gives a very good step-by-step for video production. One of the most important things to do when in video production is to plan well: think about lighting, sound, etc. before you start taking the video. This graphic also gives some statistics to illustrate why good video quality is important.
When you come right down to it, films are really just a series of different shots edited together. Most people who have been directing for a while have a shorthand way of describing what they want. For example, you will typically hear a director say "We'll start Wide then move into an OTS