It helps me to think of EAS (electrophilic aromatic substitution) groups like this. The charges listed are not really there-the carbons are not actually fully charged, the charge labels are there to illustrate areas of low electron density (+) and areas of high electron density (-). Recall that nucleophiles go for the (+) areas. This is why groups direct. Electron donating groups=EDG Electron withdrawing groups=EWG Halides are technically EWG, but they act as ortho/para directors anyways.
Benefits of Antioxidants: Antioxidants help the body by slowing down the processes related to cell aging. Throughout day to day life the body is exposed to a variety of chemical, environmental, and physiological stresses. As a result, toxins build up. Antioxidants are the heroes in this microscopic story happening within the human body as antioxidants donate electrons to unstable free radical molecules, rendering them stable once again. Antioxidants boost brain function improve...
Credit: Image donated by Corbis-Bettmann In July 1935, Farnsworth Television Laboratories introduced a combination radio and television receiving set that it demonstrated to a group of radio experts and newspaper men. Here, Philo T. Farnsworth shows the set to Mabel Bernstein.
Low-valent titanium readily prepared in situ from and Mg powder in THF is found to be an active agent for the reduction of amides which were previously considered to be inert towards low-valent titanium.
Copper-Catalyzed α-Methylenation of Benzylpyridines Using Dimethylacetamide as One-Carbon Source