Çatalhöyük (çatal for fork -höyük for mound): a very large Neolithic & Chalcolithic settlement in S Anatolia, which existed from about 7500 -5700 BC. It is the largest & best-preserved Neolithic site found to date. Cradle of Civilization
The Sumerians were the first known people to settle in Mesopotamia over 7,000 years ago, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (modern day Iraq). Sumer was often called the cradle of civilization. By the 4th millennium BC, it had established an advanced system writing, spectacular arts and architecture, astronomy and mathematics. The origin of the Sumerians remains a mystery till this day.