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The Sumerians were the first known people to settle in Mesopotamia over 7,000 years ago, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (modern day Iraq). Sumer was often called the cradle of civilization. By the 4th millennium BC, it had established an advanced system writing, spectacular arts and architecture, astronomy and mathematics. The origin of the Sumerians remains a mystery till this day.


Fragment of a carved wooden face with an inlaid, socketed eye. Egypt, Africa. (1884.67.19)


Anatolia – The Craddle of Civilization

Cradle of Civilization. Çatal Höyük (çatal is Turkish for “fork”, höyük for “mound”) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 B.C. to 5700 B.C. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date.


Nebamun's garden, fragment of the scene from the tomb-chapel of Nebamun. Thebes, Egypt Late 18th Dynasty, around 1350 BC Nebamun’s garden in the afterlife is not unlike the earthly gardens of wealthy Egyptians. The pool is full of birds and fish, and surrounded by borders of flowers and shady rows of trees. The fruit trees include sycomore-figs, date-palms and dom-palms – the dates are shown with different degrees of ripeness.