Deforestation also drives climate change. Forest soils are moist, but without protection from sun-blocking tree cover they quickly dry out. Trees also help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapor back into the atmosphere. Removing trees deprives the forest of portions of its canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day and holds in heat at night. This disruption leads to more extreme temperatures swings.
Similar to a sieve, the willows allow water to flow through but trap the sediment back. Within a year, these structures can trap up to 10cm of sediment. Over time, this increases as the willows become more established and more sediment can be kept back. After 20 to 30 years, the vegetation will have complete cover and sediment erosion is almost completely stopped.