Chronic Bronchitis. One form of COPD. Can often present with emphysema, though clinically, both conditions look very different. Both are caused by smoking, making cessation necessary. Chronic bronchitis presents with inflammation of the bronchial mucosa due to irritation, resulting in scarring and fibrosis. Hyperplasia of the mucous glands, goblet cells, and increased bronchial wall thickness all can restrict airflow. Late signs and symptoms can result in the "blue bloater" appearance.
Emphysema-destruction of alveolar walls leading to permanently inflated alveoli; enzyme necessary for lung remodeling is deficient; loss of elastic recoil hyperinflation of alveoli, leading to air trapping; causes: genetics, smoking; manifestations: dyspnea upon exertion, diminished breath sounds, wheezing, chest tightness, tachypnea, hypoxia, hypercapnia, activity intolerance, anorexia, malaise; dx: same as chronic bronchitis; treatment: same as chronic bronchitis with pursed-lip breathing
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