The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009 was divided, one half awarded to Charles Kuen Kao "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication", the other half jointly to Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith "for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor".
Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Image Sensor Market is driven by low price of CCD base image sensors; low cost advantage of charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor is estimated to exhaust due to obsolesce of this technology. http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/charge-coupled-device-image-sensor-market.html
ENGINEERING: As a light-gathering pixel exceeds its capacity to hold captured photons, the excess energy spills over into the adjacent pixel (or pixels, if the second pixel also fills to its capacity). This spillover, called “blooming,” produces a spike of light on every bright star in the image. https://www.astronomics.com/blooming_t.aspx
The above left image of Mars were taken in 1999, across almost 60 million miles (!) by a talented amateur astronomer in Oeiras, Portugal -- Antonio Cidadao. They were acquired with a modest 10-inch "Schmidt-Cassegrain" reflecting telescope, and a commercially available CCD (charge coupled device) camera. Mr. Cidado’s total investment in his "Mars imaging system" – commercial telescope and electronic camera, plus computer to process the images, and the appropriate software -- was…