Kant's Categorical Imperative is a moral law that states the conditions for when a maxim (a statement of what to do) is morally obligatory. The Imperative takes many formulations but the most common is of 'Universalisability' - only do that which you will to be a universal law for everyone, everywhere, at all times.
Although a simplification, #Rousseau's Noble Savage suggested that man, in his natural state, was good, kind and generous. This was in stark contrast to #Hobbes, who argued the 'State of Nature' of natural man was "nasty, brutish, and short". For Rousseau, it was excessive society, with it's laws and structures, which brought out the worst in us, as it served only to promote wealth and what he called 'unfreedom'. #philosophy #politics #liberty #politicaltheory
#Hobbes thought that man, free of all #authority, would resort to a 'state of nature': a bitter struggle for resources, resulting in a 'short nasty and brutish' existence. To avoid this bleak state, we must surrender absolute personal autonomy to give authority to a sovereign government. The Social Contact is therefore formed between society and the #sovereign: a compromise of #liberty on one hand #security and #comfort on the other.
Berkeley’s Idealism stated that only two things exist: the mind, and that which the mind perceives What others (philosophers) called ‘matter’ was, for him, identical to our idea. Objects exist insofar as they can be perceived.
Feuerbach believed that organised religion had merely created an idol out of an idealised form of man. We had anthropomorphised God into being everything we wanted to be. Once we realised this, Feuerbach thought we would do away with the more superstitious elements and embraced a humanism he called "Realized Christianity".
Descartes’ Substance Dualism maintains that both the mind and body exist as two separate and distinct substances. He argued using Leibniz’s Law - where two identical things must have completely identical properties. From here, he thought we are...
#Nietzsche nihilistic aphorism “God is Dead” is the starting point for his wider conviction that there were no truths or certainties In this uncertain void, true meaning came in reaching for an inner #Ubermensch, where we should and must create our own values in a Will to Power.
#Sartre's #Existentialism demanded we accept and embrace our radical #freedom. We should realise that we are the agents of our fate. Those moments in life which we try to hide, or surrender, this freedom, Sartre called 'Bad Faith'.
Marx believed that economics was everything - the past, present, and even the (deterministically inevitable) future. There would be an organic progression of society, until the proletariat would realise their own capacity, and establish a classless society of common responsibility and ownership.