Throne of Charlemagne and the subsequent German Kings in Aachen Cathedral. Charlemagne's court in Aachen was the centre of the cultural revival sometimes referred to as the "Carolingian Renaissance". The period saw an increase in literacy, developments in the arts, architecture and jurisprudence, as well as liturgical and scriptural studies. The English monk Alcuin (d. 804) was invited to Aachen, and brought the classical Latin education available in the monasteries of Northumbria.
Book of Kells the famous 9th century illuminated manuscript of the gospels written by monks. It is in the Trinity College Library that was built in 1712. It is one of eight buildings on the 40-acre site that collectively hold over 4 million books - one copy of every Irish or British book published since 1801.
Gothic / black-letter script evolved from Carolingian in the later middle ages, circa 1200 AD, became the dominant handwriting from the 12C until the Italian Renaissance (1400–1600 AD). It was not as clear as Carolingian, but was narrower, darker & denser. The dot above the i was added to differentiate it from the similar strokes of the n, m, & u. The u was created as separate from the v, which had been used for both sounds. Compact handwriting saved space, as parchment was expensive...
A large silver alloy Carolingian lidded vessel, part of the hoard of Viking treasure unearthed by metal-detecting enthusiast Derek McLennan, 47, in one of the most significant finds of its kind ever made in Scotland.