Battle of Gaugamela , 331 BC near Mosul, not far from Irbil Macedonian victory, Persian military capabilities are crippled Strength 47,000 (See Size of Macedonian army) 34,000–100,000 (modern estimates) 250,000–1,000,000 (ancient sources) (See Size of Persian army) Casualties and losses 100 infantry and 1,000 cavalry (according to Arrian); 300 infantry (according to Curtius Rufus); 500 infantry (according to Diodorus Siculus) 40,000 (according to Curtius
Alexander likely saw elephants for the first time during the battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. The impressive Persian war elephants fascinated the young king. It is believed that Persians brought about fifteen of these animals to the battle. When Alexander won it, he took all of them. He spent some time observing these animals, and it is known that he truly appreciated their strength and intelligence.