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Burning of the US Frigate Philadelphia in the Harbor of Tripoli, 1804, during the First Barbary War (1801–1805),

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USS Enterprise in the Mediterranean, Barbary Wars by Patrick O'Brien. A U.S. Navy topsail-schooner built in Baltimore in 1799. She carried 12 guns. She is shown here in 1801 during her service in the First Barbary War.

Ottoman Janissaries (conscripted soldiers) were divided into 101 ortahs (regiments), each Janissary tattooed a mark on his arm showing his ortah. A crescent was the symbol of the first ortah (the Sultans ortah), the thirty-first ortah which served on board the fleet, was an anchor. The number of Janissaries in each ortah was varied, greater numbers were in the most distinguished; the number in some was extremely large, that of the thirty-fifth, amounting to nearly thirty thousand.

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from About.com Education

How Jefferson Fought the Barbary Pirates

Ottoman mamluke officer, brought when young into the country as a slave he could eventually rise through the ranks and perhaps become a Bey. The Porte Ottoman central government) tried to restore its authority in Egypt, by reducing the power of the Beys and Mamelukes. The Pacha sent Albanian soldiers to Grand Cairo having in 1811 already made use of the latter in surprising and putting to death a large body of the Mamlukes and subsequently given orders for the destruction of the rest.

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