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Lymph containing lymphocytes, antigen, and soluble mediators drains from surrounding tissues and enters the lymph nodes via afferent lymphatic vessels. The lymph node consists of a cortex and a medulla. The outermost area of the cortex has B cells organized into lymphoid follicles, and its deep, or paracortical, area consists mainly of T cells and dendritic cells. After B cells encounter antigens for which they have receptors, along with the appropriate T cells, central areas of marked B…

A T cell to Help the CNS B cell? The problem in MS could be the B cell follicles sometimes found in CNS. These were described years earlier in rheumatoid arthritis so it is intersting that recently it has been reported that there is a T cell subset that helps the B cells to do their thang.If you look in a B cell follicle of a lymph gland you find CD4 T cells. These have got the name of Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH) are antigen-experienced…

MS is a B cell Disease and Memory B cells are the Target for therapy Baker D Marta M Pryce G Giovannoni G Schmierer KMemory B cells are major targets for effective immunotherapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis. EBioMedicine 2017(CLICK FOR FULL STORY). Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be a CD4Th17-mediated autoimmune disease supportive evidence is perhaps circumstantial often based on animal studies and is questioned by the perceived failure of CD4-depleting antibodies to…

My most recent painting, taking lots of influence from microscope slides looking at cellular structures in plants. This was for my in laws for Christmas.

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SUBJECT MATTER: Wrinkled skin- a symbol of human growth and development of life. The skin cells and general texture of the flesh evolves as time goes by.

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Childhood MS shows us that Memory B cells are Important in MS Schwarz A Balint B Korporal-Kuhnke M Jarius S von Engelhardt K Fürwentsches A Bussmann C Ebinger F Wildemann B Haas J.B-cell populations discriminate between pediatric- and adult-onsetmultiple sclerosis.Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2016;4(1):e309 OBJECTIVE: METHODS: RESULTS: CONCLUSIONS: This provides further evidence for a role of B cell memory in MS. The authors are not looking for anything other than B cells and…

Replicating the B cell Effect...Memory B cells as the target? Dooley J Pauwels I Franckaert D Smets I Garcia-Perez JE Hilven K Danso-Abeam D Terbeek J Nguyen AT De Muynck L Decallonne B Dubois B Liston A Goris A.Immunologic profiles of multiple sclerosis treatments reveal shared early B cell alterations. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2016;3(4):e240. OBJECTIVE:We undertook a systems immunology approach of the adaptive immune system in multiple sclerosis (MS) overcoming tradeoffs…