Red Summer (1919) - On October 1, a race riot broke out in Elaine, Arkansas. Planters opposed the efforts of black sharecroppers to organize for better terms, and attacked them. In the riot they killed between 100 and 200 blacks. Arkansas Governor Brough's committee of prominent local white businessmen concluded that the Sharecroppers Union was "established for the purpose of banding negroes together for the killing of white people." The government convicted 79 blacks by all-white juries.
During a Union attack on Little Rock, Arkansas, Union General Thomas Hart Benton ordered his troops to guard the home of Albert Pike to protect the Masonic Library there. Benton at the time was Grand Master of Iowa, serving in that office from 1861-63. Benton was also the nephew of Missouri's first senator and Masonic Brother Thomas Hart Benton.