Joan Clarke, the cryptanalyst war-heroine, and the women of Bletchley Park (you never heard of)
Joan Clarke Murray codebreaker at Bletchley Park during World War II, became deputy head of Hut 8 in 1944. Code breaking was almost exclusively done by men during the war. Clarke was paid less than the men and felt that she was prevented from progressing further because of her gender. She was a English cryptanalyst and numismatist ~
Alan Turing, everyone (Had to learn about him from a movie!)
Among a cohort of talented thinkers assembled at Bletchley Park was the mathematician Alan Turing. Based on his experience working during there, Turing later came up with an idea for a stored-program, electronic computer. Turing also was an early thinker in the field of artificial intelligence. However, his life took a tragic turn. A homosexual in an era when homosexuality was against the law, Turing was prosecuted in 1952 and accepted chemical castration as an alternative to a jail sentence. He
Alan Turing, British mathematician (1912-1954), altered the course of the 20th C. His 1936 paper laid the foundation of computer science, providing the first formal concept of a computer algorithm. In WWII he designed the machines that cracked German military codes. In the late 1940's he turned his attention to artificial intelligence and proposed a challenge, now called the Turing test, still important today. His contribution to mathematical biology was no less profound.
It is hard to overstate the importance of Alan Turing, the British mathematician who died in 1954. He was a hero in science, for one. Turing invented the concepts that underlie modern computers and artificial intelligence. And he was a hero in war: He was a vital part of the British cryptographic team at Bletchley Park that cracked the German Enigma code during World War II.