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Archaeologists at Khirbet al-Mafjar recently uncovered what they think are horse stables belonging to a manor house from the later Abbasid Caliphate period, evidence that the original Umayyad estate continued to be used and developed centuries after its first inhabitants were gone.

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ISLAMIC, Abbasid Caliphate, AV Gold Dinar, Madinat al-Salam; 157 AH

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The House of wisdom Baghdad. At the House of Wisdom, scholars of many nationalities and religions translated into Arabic, Greek, Persian and Indian works on mathematics, logic, astronomy, philosophy and the exact sciences, and wrote commentaries on those texts as well as original works of their own.

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Chess piece Iran, Kashan, made late 13th C. On the brim he is identified as Sultan Tughril and dated 538 AH (1143–44 AD) referring to his reign The 12th C. historian Ravandi cites Seljuk Sultan Tughril II's prescription for victory on the battlefield: ‘Like a chess-player one has to observe the enemy’s moves as well as one’s own’. Stonepaste ware, painted black under a colourless glaze, partly stained turquoise and cobalt blue.

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